A downloadable version of the Power Point for this presentation is available here: For Download-Shared Attentional Frames and Classroom Practice Crossing Academic Borders
The Power Point with the videos is a large file, and the videos will not download with the file. However, videos from the presentation Power Point and other exemplar cases are presented on this page.
Any teachers or students who want to try any of the activities should be able to follow the Power Point and use all videos and documents added below to copy and adjust to their local teaching context and literacy/language learning objectives.
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Digital Video and Math Word Problems
An example of digital video cameras used with random participants not in school and students solving math word problems in remedial math classes.
(An adaptation from an old problem from India). A goose meets a flock of geese. The goose says ‘Hello, a hundred of geese’. The leader of the geese answers, ‘No, we are not a hundred. If there were also a half of our number and you, goose, then together there will be a hundred’.
How many geese were in the flock?
Case MI3, Case “Dan,”the Goose Problem
Initial Calculations and Initial Plan for the Visual from Case Dan.
Case MI3 Video
Case MI3, Dan, Transcript with detail added as time permits.
1) Dan: Alright The question was
2) a goose meets a flock of geese
3) the goose says hello a hundred of geese
4) the leader of the geese answers no
5) we are not a hundred
6) if there were also half of our number
7) and you. Goose
8) then together there will be a hundred
9) how many geese were in the flock?
10) Alright so first of all
11) I took a hundred.
12) The number we were looking for—to get
13) minus the one goose
14) that came up and said hello
15) We have 99 geese
16) Then I took
17) Mah. Divided that by two
18) To get a new
19) A new [flack or hat?]
20) Is right here. . but
21) And I came with forty-nine and a half
22) Geese in the flock
23) Which is not possible
In this moment, Case Dan is demonstrating metacognition, the ability to think about one’s own thinking (Bene, 2014). In chunks 24 through 29 he articulates some of his thinking. Case Dan reaffirms this correction in the final two chunks, line 49 and 50 below.
24) Because you can’t have half a geese
25) So after thinking about it
26) and reading the question a few more times
27) I came up with this problem
28) Still trying to get the hundred geese
29) Er what we’re coming to
30) And minus your one goose that came up
31) You have ninety-nine
32) Now when I divide that by three
34) Which gives me thirty-three
35) So thirty-three would be
36) The the half of the
37) The half of their number
38) So if there’s sixty
39) There’s ah well
40) Ninety-nine minus 33 gives you 66
41) So if there’s 66
42) and you take half of that
43) and add it to the flock
44) then you got—er you got ninety nine
45) then you add the one goose
46) that came up and said hello
47) which makes a hundred
48) which answers the question
49) an . therefore this one has to be right
50) and this one has to be wrong
Bene, R. (2014). Opportunities and challenges of using video to examine High School Students’ Metacognition. The Qualitative Report, 9, 1-26.
Reading Summary and Response Documents.
Please fee free to adapt or change as necessary. All the work on this website is intended to be shared openly with teachers and students from any country, culture, and language.
Five Paragraph Essay, Inductive Approach Documents. Please feel free to adapt or change as necessary.
The link below is sample paragraph for practicing summaries and different types of questions, for example, implicit, explicit, or questions that involve the reader’s personal experiences. This is a paragraph that is also used to model oral summaries for students.
The next link is model of a video recorded oral summary with an explanation of supporting details done by an instructor.
Much of the data and materials on this page were adapted from a presentation at an English Scholars Beyond Borders conference at Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, TURKEY in March of 2014.
This was later written into a paper with two colleagues (please note the links to pdfs for both articles; these are downloadable)
Unger, J, Liu R, Scullion V. (2015). Language Competency as Semiotic Design: Attempting to Cross Academic Borders with Digital Video Cameras. English Scholarship Beyond Borders, 1(1), 1-51. Retrived from http://www.englishscholarsbeyondborders.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Language-Competency-as-Semiotic-Design.pdf
A more extensive article emphasizing sentence completion activities was published in the Unger (2016) paper.
Unger, J. (2016). Shared attentional frames and sentence completion activities: A process based approach to literacy assessment. English Scholarship Beyond Borders, 2(1), 58-120. Retrieved fromhttp://www.englishscholarsbeyondborders.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/John-Unger-2.pdf
Click below for the Power Point from the ESBB Conference in Izmir, Turkey, March 2014
Sentence Completion Materials
This link below is sentence completions, which were presented using a Skype connection in December 2015 to an English Scholars Beyond Borders Symposium at Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, TURKEY in December.
Demonstration Video of the Sentence Completion Activity
Document Used in the Video
Case Caesar: Weblink for the Editorial that was Summarized
Case Caesar’s take home pre-writing. This is how he created the first draft of the main idea statement and supporting details for the Visual.
Three-Step Process for Creating a Main Idea Statement, as demonstrated by Case Caesar
- He answer the first question, “What is the topic?” in a full sentence.
- He answers the second question, “What does the author want you to know?” in a full sentence
- He combines the answers into a one or two sentence main idea statement that expressed the topic of the reading and the author’s intention.
As demonstrated by Case Caesar.
What is the topic?
The topic is drug cheats in sports.
What does the author wants you to know?
The author wants you to know that should enhancement drugs be used by athletes, it is considered cheating in sports.
What is the main statement?
Athletes using drug enhancement to increase their ability are cheating.
The author states “
“Sadly, sports will never be the same. Someone will always be looking for an edge. And that edge today comes out the end of a needle”
“The better the testing gets, the better the druggists get”
“The sad price of all of this becomes a message to youngsters that if you want to make it, or excel, you have to cheat.”
I agree with the author because an athlete should not use enhancement drugs to increase their ability to outperform other athletes. The author states “that edge today comes out the end of a needle”. Using these types of drugs is considered cheating and should be banned from all athletics.
Case Caesar Main Idea and Supporting Detail Video
Transcript of the Video
Discourse is divided through a combination of grammatical markers, such as the beginning of clauses and phrases that begin with subordinators, conjunctions, and commas and where the speaker markedly pauses or moves the hands (this is adjusted through second rounds through the data).
Bolded text is spontaneous speech/ Italics signify any transcriber notes and descriptions of actions happening on the video/ regular text in quotes are read directly from the visual by the participant and the text read directly from the visual is chunked the same way as the text is chunked on the Visual.
And my main idea is
“Athletes using drug enhancement to increase their
ability are cheating”
And my first supporting detail is
“The sad price of all of this becomes a message to
youngsters that if you want to make it or excel, you have
And the supporting detail supports my main idea just because
Well, you know this is showing to all youngsters
that the athletes are good at athletic
that it would have been **
To Excel and win
They have to cheat
My second supporting detail is
“The better the testing gets the better the druggests get”
The second supporting supports my main idea is because is
The test is getting more and more strict for athletes
He is pointing at the phrase “better the testing”
on top of that
the drugs are getting more and more better
where it hard to
use drug enhancement to cheat in sports
My third supporting detail is
“sadly, sports will never be the same. Someone will always
Be looking for an edge. And the edge today comes out
The end of a needle”
And this third supporting detail supports the main idea
All athletes are using drug enhancement
to increase their Ability
He sweeps finger underneath the phrase “an edge” as he begins to say to increase
To do better than other athletes
The finger is held underneath the end of the word “edge” until he completes the phrase “other athletes”
And my response is
“I agree with the author because an athlete should not [be] use
[drug enhancement) to increase their ability to outperform other
athletes. The author states “that edge today comes out the end of
In the first line Caesar inserts the word “ be” in front of “use”
In the second line in the groups above, the visual has “enhancement drugs” and he point to “enhancement drugs” on the visual while saying the reverse “drug enhancement)
a needle.” [by] Using these types of drugs is considered cheating
and should be banned from all [athletes].
In the three lines above, Caesar inserts two words, “by” before “using” and “athletes” instead of “athletics,” which was a correction on the chart that he did not correct in oral speech
And I think my supporting detail number three supports
the main idea is because now is the athletes
are using drugs to better their
energy to play sports
by doing that it’s considered cheating
Caesar points at the word cheating in his main idea statement.
so this concludes my main idea statement
“Athletes using drug enhancement to increase their
ability are cheating”
Caesar’s Answers to the Self Evaluation Questions for his Video. These evaluation questions usually are given to the students and completed prior to writing the summary.
- Pick one moment in the video where you think you “highlighted” or emphasized one specific piece of information or another, one word over another, something over everything else. Why did you emphasize one over another?
The moment in the video which I emphasized a specific information was when I keep repeating the Main Idea Statement over and over again to let the audience know what I’m trying to explain.
- Do you think your Main Idea Statement was effective? If so, what, specifically, was effective about it, if not, what would you do differently to make it more effective?
I think the Main Idea Statement that I have chosen is effective because the statement was specific about how athletes cheat in sports.
- Do you think your Response Statement was effective? If so, what, specifically, was effective about it, if not, what would you do differently to make it more effective?
I think the Response Statement which I have chosen is effective because I did state that I agree with the main idea statement.
- Which words did you use to direct your audience to different parts of the information on your visual aid? Were there any?
The words that I have chosen to use to direct my audience during each different parts of the information on the visuals such as: the first supporting details, the second supporting details, and the third supporting details.
Pick one moment that you used your hand to point at your visual aid while speaking. Briefly describe that moment; then answer the question below about the transition word and the pointing:
- Was there a transition word accompanying this pointing gesture? What transition word would have been a good substitute for the moment you pointed at your visual?
Yes there were transition word that I used, but I could of add word like however, in addition, moreover, furthermore.
- Will you change your Main Idea Statement or Response Statement when you write up the next draft of your explanatory paragraph? What will you change? If not, why is it so perfect that you wouldn’t change it? J
I will not change the Main Idea Statement or Response Statement because it already relates and how I agree with the article.
- Could each of your important Supporting Details be clearly related to your Main Idea?
The first and third supporting details are clearly related to the main idea, but my second supporting details could be more in dept and specific.
- If there was anything you could change about this entire video assignment, what would you change?
The one thing that I would of change in this video assignment is memorizing the lines and should talk more slowly.
Caesar’s Formal Written Summary and Response
Athlete’s using drug enhancement to increase their abilities is cheating.According to the author, “the sad price of all this becomes a message to youngsters that if you want to me it, or excel, you have to cheat”.Moreover, this is sending a wrong message to all young athletes that in order for them to be successful or to surpass all other athletes in the sport they love; using drug enhancement will do the job.Also, a person who uses the drug enhancement; once getting caught, it is considering cheating and this is illegal in all sports.In addition, the author states “the better the testing gets, the better druggist gets”.Furthermore, the tests are getting stricter and easy to detect a person that uses drug enhancement.The odd thing about this is that the athletes are using these as drug to heal pain and soreness in the body which makes it difficult to test.In addition, the author states “sadly, sports will never be the same.Someone will always be looking for an edge. And that edge comes out the end of a needle”.For instance, there will always be an athlete that is looking for something that can improve their ability to be on top and better than any other athlete.Lastly, this comes down to using drug enhancement through the bloodstream.
I agree with the author because an athlete should not use enhancement drugs to increase their ability to outperform other athletes. Any athlete that uses this is considering cheating in sports. You can be the best player in history but if you are using drugs then you should be ban from playing sports. The bottom line is you’re not using the skills that you have in yourself, but you’re using drugs enhancement to achieve greatness.The author states “some will always be looking for an edge”.This completely explain why in the past few years there have been many cases where athletes have beenusing enhancement drugs for that extra edge in sports. In addition, the consequences for any athletes should be to where they are kick off the team and banned from every playing that type of sports. This concludes about athlete using drug enhancement to increase their abilities is cheating.
Case Sally: Digital Video Activity for Presenting Supporting Details and Thesis Statements
Case Sally Outline (See Blank Outline Documents at the Top of this Webpage and for other activities discussed and presented in the data for this paper).
• Should sex education be taught in public schools?
Topic Paragraph One: ___ Young people should be educated properly about sex.
Supporting Detail One: _____Help adolescents to be safe..
Supporting Detail Two:_____Help to prevent sexual infection.
Supporting Detail Three_____Young people need to know what to do when the time comes.
Topic Paragraph Two: _______Provided better communication with parents.
Supporting Detail One:_______Help parents to feel comfortable with their children to talk about sex.
Supporting Detail Two: _____Sometime parent does not have the correct answer.
Supporting Detail Three: ____ Helps parents to make it easier to start talking about sex.
Topic Paragraph Three:__A child who educated will be less vulnerable to:
Supporting Detail One: _____A child who is informed can prevent early pregnancy
Supporting Detail Two: ____A child who is informed can prevent abortion
Supporting Detail Three:_ A child who is informed is less to become a victim of a sexual abuse.
Case Sally Video
Please Note that Case S, Sally was using a sheet of paper to help her with her presentation. At first we discouraged using notes, and I do discourage using notes in most early student work, but the main point is that learners have the freedom to enact competence as design (Kress, 2003, p. 36). Lately, I’ve been letting students refer to notes on some work, particularly when they are presenting complex information, and I prompt them to notice the differences in rhythm, pace, and tone of speech if they read too much from their notes. I often prompt them to note how really stiff and boring their voices sound if they read too much rather than speak naturally to their audience.
Transcript Case Sally
Sally is using her hand to point, but she has also grabbed a marker pen that was used to point while speaking.
Today I’m going to talk about
Her hand appears on the video with a marker pen held in a way that the marker pen is an extension of her finger.
Is sex should be taught in a public school schools?
My Hook is
As she says this phrase, Sally rests her marker just to the left of the phrase on the Visual, picking up the marker to move over to the Hook, in black marker, net to the label “A Hook”
If someone touch you
Sally runs the pen underneath the chunk “If Someone touches,” lifting the pen at the very end of you and bouncing it in the air
And makes you feel uncomfortable
This chunk is read word for word, but with a substitute occurring in this chunk “and you feel uncomfortable.” On the Visual, it reads “it is uncomfortable.” In her Speech, she makes a correction.
She also flips her hand over on the word “uncomfortable
You should tell to a trust adult
No hand in the camera frame.
A draft of some kind of outline appears in her hand, just before the 15 second mark. (see Figure Two) or one of the associated homework assignments where students had to write these on a sheet of paper before they wrote it on the Visual.
Figure Two: A Screen Capture Photo of when Sally brings another semiotic resource into the camera frame:
Data From Case Mawng: An example of signification and mediation, in addition to creating a Shared Attentional Frame
Case Mawng (Data Collected Summer 2002 and appearing in Unger & Walter, 2010)
Case Mawng is creating mixture of iconic and beat gesture with both hands and saying “boop, boop” to signify the word “lights,” to which a member of the audience, Nathaneee, responds. (see Unger & Walter, 2010. A screen-snapshot appears of this moment appear in that paper). Also notice that her pen is pointing at specific section of her visual as she speaks.
Alright and then in twentieth century there’s more like development
they have electric city
to help, you know Boop Boop, you know, help to highlight the story (note the opening and closing of the hands here)
to make it much more like
Participant B: lights—(The response)
Participant A: exciting uh-huh. And the last one
Participant A saying, “to help, you know Boop Boop, you know, help to highlight the story.”
Below is the Tree Diagram Box that Mawng has the pen pointing to and which she is talking about when Participant B responds with “lights” after seeing the kind of iconic, closing and opening of the hands.
(for more detail see Unger & Walter, 2010) http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/PTA/November_2010_Unger.pdf
The model is presented in Unger, Liu, and Scullion (2015) and further articulated in Unger (2016). This model has evolved from the ideas of Tomasello (2003), McCafferty (2002) and many others.
McCafferty, S. (2002). Gesture and creating zones of proximal development for second language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 86, 192-202.
Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harbard University Press.
Unger, J (2016). Shared Attentional Frames and Sentence Completion Activities: A Process Based Approach to Literacy Assessment. English Scholarship Beyond Borders, 2, 58-120. Retrieved from http://www.englishscholarsbeyondborders.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/John-Unger-2.pdf
Specifically, The model below of a Shared Attentional Frame is an adaptation of Tomasello’s (2003) rendering of the “Structure of a linguistic symbol” (p. 29) and a “Joint attentional frame” (p. 26).